Exercise Medicine as a core strategy for ageing health: Bridging the evidence-gaps between Community and Clinical Exercise Programmes for chronic disease prevention and treatment in older population
This strategic initiative aims to translate the current evidence on exercise medicine for clinical applications in age associated musculoskeletal conditions (i.e., osteoporosis, sarcopenia and frailty) by demonstrating the value of community exercise programmes in preventing, delaying and moderating age-related decline in musculoskeletal health. Specifically, this study aims to compare musculoskeletal health biomarkers of older men and women who have been performing aerobic, calisthenics or mixed-exercise programmes in community settings. A secondary aim is to contribute to the current debates on clinical definition and measurements of sarcopenia and frailty.
This study will recruit male and female participants (> 50 years of age) who have been participating for > 2years in community-based programmes for aerobic exercise (AE, running and brisk walking), callisthenic exercise (CE, Tai Qi Quan and gym exercises) or mixed aerobic and callisthenic exercises (MAC, exercises dance classes). Up to 50 participants will be recruited from each exercise group after obtaining their informed-consent. Another n=50 sedentary participants will be recruited to form the Control Group (CG), making a total of up to n=200 participants in the study
Each participant will attend the trial once in a fasted state to under the following measurements and procedures: Anthropometry: Height, weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, peripheral, central and total body fat and bone density at lumbar and hip region using the DXA. Physical Performance: hand grip strength, isometric strength, 20 m walking speed, balance test, flexibility test, Frenchey index, sit-up-and-go test, bean bag throw. Frailty and Sarcopenia Assessment;
Modified Fried frailty phenotype, FRAIL questionnaire, Rockwood Clinical Frailty Scale, SARCF questionnaire.
Survey: Demographic, health history, exercise habits, 24h dietary recall, food frequency questionnaire, medication and dietary supplements, occupation history, menstrual pattern (women only). Cognitive Assessment: Psychomotor vigilance test for reaction time, vigilance, and pattern recognition, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA).
Venous blood samples (15 mL) will be collected for measurement of blood lipids, fasted blood glucose, HbA1c, inflammatory cytokines, hormonal profile, blood count, and calcitonin. Some blood will be stored for future analysis of myostatin, brain neurotrophic factors, DNA damage, metabolomics and lipidomics. Stool, urine, saliva and sputum samples will also be collected and stored for future analyses.
Optional assessments: the participants will also have the option to undertake the 7-day physical activity profile and the aubmaximal treadmill walking test for those without history of heart disease, uncontrolled blood sugar level and blood pressure < 142/100.